Second-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity that began in the early s and lasted roughly two decades. It took place throughout the Western world , and aimed to increase equality for women by building on previous feminist gains. Whereas first-wave feminism focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality e. Feminist-owned bookstores , credit unions, and restaurants were among the key meeting spaces and economic engines of the movement.
The sexual revolution , also known as a time of sexual liberation , was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and the developed world from the s to the s. Several other periods in Western culture have been called the "first sexual revolution", to which the s revolution would be the second or later. The term "sexual revolution" itself has been used since at least the late s. The term appeared as early as ; the book Is Sex Necessary? When speaking of the sexual revolution, historians  make a distinction between the first and the second sexual revolution.
The feminist sex wars , also known as the lesbian sex wars , or simply the sex wars or porn wars , are terms used to refer to collective debates amongst feminists regarding a number of issues broadly relating to sexuality and sexual activity. Differences of opinion on matters of sexuality deeply polarized the feminist movement, particularly leading feminist thinkers, in the late s and early s and continue to influence debate amongst feminists to this day. The sides were characterized by anti-porn feminist and sex-positive feminist groups with disagreements regarding sexuality, including pornography , erotica , prostitution , lesbian sexual practices , the role of transgender women in the lesbian community, sadomasochism and other sexual issues.
It is named after the French author and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir , known for her women's rights treatise The Second Sex. The prize was founded by Julia Kristeva on January 9, , the th anniversary of de Beauvoir's birth. The prize is awarded every year to a remarkable personality whose courage and thoughts are examples for everybody, in the spirit of Simone de Beauvoir who wrote: "The ultimate end, for which human beings should aim, is liberty, the only capable [thing], to establish every end on.